Non-Invasive Intracranial Pressure (ICP) Monitoring
ICP is an important parameter in managing traumatic brain injury
The military needed a way for medics to measure intracranial pressure non-invasively in the field. Vivonics' portable, non-invasive ICP monitor enables medics to measure ICP instantly in any battlefield condition.
Vivonics has developed I.PASS: Intracranial Pressure Assessment and Screening System, a device that can monitor intracranial pressure completely non-invasively. The system uses three near-infrared sensors, the same type as used to record pulse oximetry. Two sensors placed on the head and one on a fingertip or other extremity provide a measure of intracranial pressure (ICP) within a few heartbeats. The I.PASS portable ICP monitor can be used in clinical or field settings.
I.PASS enables the rapid assessment of intracranial pressure in post-concussion events. A closed-head brain injury can have insidious effects on the casualty. The brain is a soft organ with delicate structures held within a fixed volume. Damage to the small structures within a brain causes local swelling, and cerebral blood flow and systemic blood pressure may not necessarily decrease with brain swelling. Therefore, even mild swelling results in increased pressure. This elevated intracranial pressure can itself cause more damage, leading to a negative spiral that ends in dire health consequences, including brain cell death and permanent brain injury or death.
At present there is yet to be available a robust, reliable system that can monitor intracranial pressure (ICP) without direct access to the intracranial space. It is therefore not feasible to check ICP on every person who has or may have experienced trauma to the brain, and it is unknown how many casualties of concussive injuries have underlying increased pressure in the brain that occurs in response to the injury.
Arguably the best systems currently available to identify which casualties are at the most risk of brain injury are those that monitor the physical trauma that the head experiences. However these systems measure the severity of the cause (impact), which does not take into account individual variability with regards to susceptibility of brain injury.
I.PASS employs three near-infrared (NIR) sensors and a novel algorithm to monitor intracranial pressure. I.PASS provides accurate, quick, and unobtrusive measurement of any swelling/inflammation of the brain so that individualized treatment can be provided. In so doing, athletes who require immediate attention can be attended to before further injury is incurred due to elevated pressure. Rapid treatment, before worsening of symptoms, is likely to enable a faster return to activity, while minimizing the insidious long term effects of concussion-induced brain injury.
*Product under development, not yet FDA approved